Пособие для студентов педагогических институтов. Dos Navigator. Maugham, F. It is used in all kinds of sentences in the present and past tenses and is followed by the passive infinitive. I suggest hat you should stay here as if nothing had happened.
The two forms are not opposed in the meaning of possibility due to circumstances where only may is used, nor in the реферат на тему modal verbs of disapproval of reproach where might alone is found. It is also used to suggest of recommend an action. I may as well take the child with me. Я, пожалуй, возьму ребенка с. Пожалуй, будет лучше, если я возьму ребенка с.
Roy Wilson, the new doctor, was twenty-eight, large, heavy, mature and blond. He might have been a Scandinavian sailor. If I may say so … has become a stereotyped phrase in which the meaning of permission is considerably weakened. In addition to the above cases illustrating the independent use of maythis modal verb occurs in subordinate object clauses after expressions of fear as well as in adverbial clauses of purpose and concession.
The use of can and may is parallel only in two meanings: possibility due to circumstances and permission. In these meanings, however, they are not always interchangeable for a number of various reasons. Can — He can find this book at the library.
Can he find this book at the library?
The regular form is used mainly when the following infinitive denotes habitual action. I am sorry that you should have had a row with Kate about it.
He cannot find this book at the library. Their time reference is also different. May refers only to the present or future: the form might is used in past-time contexts only in reported speech.
Can could may refer to the present, pastor future. May — He may find the book at the library. Реферат на тему modal verbs said that he might find the book at the library.
Can — He can find the book at the library. He could find the book at the library yesterday. He can find the book at the library tomorrow. Both could and might combined with the Perfect infinitive indicate that the action was not carried out in the past.
It follows from the above that the sphere of application of can in this meaning is wider than that of may. The modal verb must has only one form it is used in present-time contexts with reference to the present of future and in combination with the Perfect infinitive it refers to the past. In past-time contexts this form is used only in reported speech, i. Any real реферат на тему modal verbs must have extension in four directions: it must have Length, Breadth, Thickness, and — Duration. In different contexts must may acquire additional shades of meaning, such as duty or necessity.
In this meaning must is found in affirmative and interrogative sentences and followed only by the simple infinitive. He must not leave his room for a while. Он не должен ему нельзя выходить из комнаты некоторое время. This meaning is expressed in negative sentences and must is also followed by the simple infinitive. This meaning is found in affirmative and negative sentences and is closely connected with the two above mentioned meanings. Must in this meaning is found only in affirmative sentences.
Дипломная работа: Modal verbs
In Russian this meaning is generally rendered by means of the attitudinal adverbs вероятно, должно. In English this meaning may also be expressed by means of the attitudinal adverb probably.
In this meaning must may be followed by different forms of the infinitive. If reference is made to the present, the Continuous infinitive is used with dynamic verbs. The book is not on the shelf. Jane must be reading it. You must be starving.
If must is followed by the simple infinitive of dynamic verbs, it expresses obligation. You must have examined the house very carefully, to find a single pellet of paper. The combination of must with несовершеннолетний в уголовном процессе реферат Perfect Continuous infinitive indicates an action begun in the past and continued into the moment of speaking.
It must have been raining all the night. There are big puddles in the garden. He must have been here since breakfast. He must have known it all along. When must expresses supposition implying strong probability, its use is restricted in two ways:. Эссе по обществознанию егэ 2019 видео this case we find attitudinal adverbs in the sentence.
She must really love you to distraction. He must evidently know all about it. It is found only in the affirmative form. I must be going and I must be off both mean — it is time for me to go in Russian — мне пора уходить.
I must tell you that … and I must say … are stereotyped phrases in which the meaning of obligation is considerably weakened in must. In the sentences: You must come and see me some time You must come and have a dinner with me. You must come to our party. You must come and stay with us for the weekend and the like, the meaning of obligation in must is also weakened. Must has become part of such sentences which are a common way of expressing invitations. May denotes supposition implying uncertainty whereas the supposition expressed by must implies strong probability.
For all I know, he may be an actor. His face seems so familiar. He must be an actor. His voice carries so well. I saw him an hour ago. He may still реферат на тему modal verbs in his office now. He always comes at 10 sharp. So he must be in his office now. But may is seldom found in this meaning. In negative answers to questions with may asking for permission we generally find must not or cannot.
To have to as a modal verb is not a defective verb реферат на тему modal verbs can have all the necessary finite forms as well as the verbal. He frightened her — I had to yield him my last date before Bill came. Scott Fitzgerald0. The women at barfed had had to be told that an experiment was taking place that day. The interrogative and negative forms of the modal verb to have to are built up by means of the auxiliary verb to do. The verb to have to serves to express obligation or necessity imposed by circumstances.
In this meaning it is found in all kinds of sentences — affirmative, interrogative and negative — and is combined only with the simple infinitive. If you go abroad, no matter how you are traveling, you have to go through the customs. The negotiations might fail. In that event the Government would have to decide what to do. Morning star. In spoken English the meaning of obligation and necessity is also expressed by have has got to.
Like the verb to have to it is found in all kinds of sentences and is combined with the simple infinitive. Нам эссе продаже товаров укрыться. Mass struggle is vital if the elimination of the evils of racial hatred is to be guaranteed. Daily Worker. This meaning of to реферат на тему modal verbs to is found in affirmative and interrogative sentences in the present and past tenses.
To be to is followed by the simple infinitive. The past tense of the verb to be to in combination with the Perfect infinitive denotes an unfulfilled plan. I promised to go to a club with her last Tuesday, and I really forgot all about it. We were to have played a duet together. I just mention it because you said I was to give you all the details I could. Norman says I am to leave you alone.
All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once. In this meaning to be to is found is affirmative and negative sentences and followed by the simple infinitive. Three generations, that would have been.
This meaning of to be to is rendered in Russian as сужд ено. It is mainly found in the past tense and its application is limited to narration. It occurs реферат на тему modal verbs affirmative and negative sentences and is followed by the simple infinitive. Her father was often to be seen in the bar of the Hotel Metropole. Responsibilities and obligations possessed by the Soviet trade unions are to be envied. Morning Star. In this meaning to be to is equivalent to can or may.
It is used in all kinds of sentences in the present and past tenses and is followed by the passive infinitive. I could scarcely see her in the darkness, but when I rose to go — it was plain that I was not to linger — she stood in the orange light from the doorway. F Scott Fitzgerald. The verbs mustto have to and to be to have one meaning in common, that of obligation. In the present tense the verbs come very close to each other in their use, though they preserve their specific shades of meaning.
What a pity you have to go now It is time for you to catch you train. We are to wait for them at the реферат на тему modal verbs. We have arranged to meet there, so we must wait form them at the appointed place.
Sometimes the idea of obligation is absent and to be to expresses only a previously arranged plan. I had to sell my car. It was necessary for me to do it because I needed money. He had to put on his raincoat. It was raining hard outside and he would have got wet if he had not. The action was no realized in the past and the question remains open as реферат на тему modal verbs whether it is going to take place. We were to meet him at the station. It is not clear from the sentence if the action will take place.
If the speaker wishes to make it clear at once that the plan was not fulfilled, the Perfect infinitive is used to show that. We were to have met him t the station. That means that we failed to meet him.
Has he got to go right now? The history of the English verb. Will you dine with me tomorrow, Lewis? Must he go there? Dos Navigator.
However, the simple infinitive may also be used in this case. In reported speech in past-time contexts must remains unchanged in all of its meanings. In this case had to is close to must in meaning: it does not include the idea of a realized action but refers to some future moment.
In reported speech it remains unchanged. Ought is always followed by the infinitive with to. In this meaning ought to is possible реферат all kinds of sentences, though it is felt to be awkward in questions where should is preferred.
Generally ought to refers an action to the future and is followed by the simple infinitive. With reference to the present ought to is used with the continuous infinitive or with verbs simple infinitive if the verb is stative. It was getting darker and darker — all those tomb-stones ought to be repainted, sure enough, only that would spoil them, of course. In combination with the perfect infinitive ought to in the affirmative form shows that a desirable action was no fulfilled.
In the negative form ought to in combination with the Perfect Infinitive shows that an undesirable action was fulfilled. You ought to be ashamed of yourself. Historically, shall and should were two forms of the same verb expressing obligation. She was the present tense of the Indicative Mood; should was the Subjunctive Mood. But later they came to express different meanings and in present-day English their use is not parallel — they are treated as two different verbs.
In modern English the modal meaning of obligation in shall is always combined with the function of an auxiliary verb of the future tense. Shall is still used to express obligation with the second and third persons, but at present it is modal common in this meaning in spoken English.
Its use, as a rule, is restricted to formal or even archaic style and mainly реферат на тему modal verbs in subordinate clauses, i. At present, however, this meaning of obligation, somewhat modified, is found with the second and third persons in sentences expressing promise, threat or warning. It is used in affirmative and negative sentences and combined with the simple infinitive. The meaning of obligation may also be traced in interrogative sentences where shall is used with the first and third persons to ask after the will of the person addressed.
In this case it is also followed by the simple infinitive. Sentences of this kind are usually rendered in Russian with the help of the infinitive: Verbs Вам ещё кофе? Кому отвечать по телефону? In modern English the modal verb тему is used with reference to the present or future. Principles of their translation into Russian. Idiom Idioms involve collocation of a special kind. Consider, for instance, kick the отчет по практике, fly off the handle, spill the beans, red herring.Modal Verbs Conversation
For here we not only have the collocation of. Subjunctive or conditional mood Now we come to a very difficult set of problems, namely those connected with the. The chief difficulty analysis has to face here is the absence of a mutual relation between meaning and form.
Sometimes the same external series of signs will have two or more different meanings depending on factors l The Predicative Infinitive Constructions. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.
The For-to-Infi. Verb phrases Phrases as the basic element of syntax, verbs within syntax and morphology. The Structure of verb phrases, положение о докторской диссертации grammatical categories, реферат на тему modal verbs and functions. Discourse analysis of the verb phrases in the novel "Forsyte Saga" by John Galsworthy. Since gr. Adjectives Adjectives are the third major class of words in English, after nouns and verbs. Adjectives are words expressing properties of objects e.
Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language The meaning of ambiguity - lexical, structural, semantic ambiguity. Re-evaluation of verb.
Aspect meaning. Meaning of category of voice. Polysemy, ambiguity, synonymy often helps achieve a communicational goal. The most controversial category — mood. They both are useful for studying language. Active voice, Passive voice, Future forms and Past continuous.
Complex composite sentence The problems as the types of sentences in English, their classification, the problem of composite sentences. Sentences with only one predication and with more than one predication: simple and composite sentence. Types of sentences according to structure. The system of English verbs The area of the finite verb including particular questions tense, aspect and modal auxiliary usage. The categories of verb morphology: time, possibility, hypothesis, desirability, verb agreement.
American sign language and the category of voice. The category of Mood Mood as the grammatical category of the verb, problems as the number of moods, their classification. The analysis of the grammatical categories of the indicative mood system. The difference between the lexical and the grammatical реферат на тему modal verbs of time.
Рекомендуем скачать работу и оценить ее, кликнув по соответствующей звездочке. Modal Verbs Modal auxiliary verbs. To uses the verb "to be" as a main verb. The main verb. Possibility and Ability. Infinitive without "to". An auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. A real question. The main uses of Education and verbs in the English language. The process of analysis of usage of modal verbs in the English literature. He ought to help him.
Need he do it? I must go there. Я должен пойти. Вам не нужно делать. Но: You ought to help him. Вам следовало бы помочь. Вопросительная и отрицательная формы модальных глаголов образуются без вспомогательного глагола: в вопросительных предложениях модальный глагол ставится перед подлежащим, в отрицательных — после него ставится отрицание not. Can you do it?
May I take it?
Must he go there? Ought he to help him? He ought not to help him. He need not do it. Не имеют формы прошедшего времени кроме can — could, may — might и аналитических форм будущего времени, продолженного вида, перфектных форм и форм страдательного залога. В случае необходимости вместо отсутствующих форм используются эквиваленты модальных глаголов. Сочетание модального глагола с неперфектным инфинитивом относит действие к настоящему или будущему времени либо свидетельствует о его одновременности с моментом речи, и, напротив, сочетание с перфектным инфинитивом либо относит действие к прошлому, либо выражает предшествование действия относительно момента речи: I could do it.
Я мог бы сделать это в настоящем или будущем.
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I could have done it. Я мог бы сделать это но уже не сделал. Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится непосредственно после модального глагола, в результате чего значение меняется на противоположное: must должен - must not не. В настоящем времени can пишется слитно с not : He cannot do it.
You may not take it. He must not go there. В вопросительных предложениях модальный глагол стоит на первом месте либо сразу после реферат на тему modal verbs слова: Who can do it?
Moral obligation, moral duty, which may not be fulfilled. Should is found in this sense in all kinds of sentences. However ought to is preferable in this sense:. When combined with the perfect infinitive should denotes criticism, faultfinding; the statement indicates that something desirable has not been done. As is seen from the above examples, it is sometimes difficult to discriminate between the first and the second реферат на тему modal verbs.
In present-day English shall is not a purely modal verb. It always combines its modal meaning of obligation with the function of an auxiliary verb in the future tense. As a modal verb shall is not translated into Russian, usually its meaning is rendered by emphatic intonation.
Promise, oath, or strong intention.
In this meaning shall is used with the 2nd or 3rd person with a weak stress. It is used in questions and offers in the 1st person singular and plural. Such sentences are translated into Russian by the infinitive. The above three meanings are closely connected with the old meaning of obligation which is at present not common in spoken English and which is normally confined to formal or archaic style official regulations or other documents. Like shall, will is not a purely modal verb.
It almost always combines its modal meaning with its functioning as an auxiliary verb expressing futurity. Will has two forms: will for the present tense and would for the past tense. Thus will and would are looked upon as forms of the same verb, although in a few cases their meanings differ. Willingness, intention, determination. It is often rendered into Russian by непременно, обязательно, охотно. Would in this meaning shows reference to the past.
When реферат на тему modal verbs was реферат на тему modal verbs, he was so poor that he would do anything to earn some money. Will you in the tag after a negative command can tone down the command and is pronounced with the falling tone.
- He may take it.
- It is often rendered into Russian by непременно, обязательно, охотно.
- What can could he be doing?
- Asimov, O.
- Occasionally it may be found in affirmative sentences but it is not typical.
- You must not ask too much of it.
- May in this meaning is found in affirmative sentences, in interrogative sentences which usually express a request, and in negative sentences where it denotes prohibition.
With reference to inanimate objects will and would show that a thing fails to perform its function. It occurs in negative statements and corresponds to the Russian никак. Модальные глаголы обозначают не действие, а способность, допустимость, возможность, вероятность, необходимость совершения действия.
Модальные глаголы не употребляются без смыслового глагола.
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